(in ancient Rome) a group of three men holding power, in particular (the First Triumvirate) the unofficial coalition of Julius Caesar, Pompey, and Crassus in 60 bc and (the Second Triumvirate) a coalition formed by Antony, Lepidus, and Octavian in 43 bc. Although most accounts of the battle at Philippi have Octavian ill and not involved in the fight, the Roman historian Suetonius in his The Twelve Caesars related a different story. He was encouraged by Mark Antony's wife Fulvia. Antony retained Cisalpine Gaul and hegemony over Gaul itself, and Octavian held Africa and was given nominal authority over Sicily and Sardinia. Sextus Pompey, son of the legendary commander Pompey, had originally been outlawed under the Lex Pedia. Two of the conspirators, Brutus and Cassius (who some believe conceived the plot), escaped to the east. The years 59–53 BCE were defined by the political dominance of Julius Caesar, Pompey and Crassus under an unofficial alliance known as the First Triumvirate. (Vatican Museums... Grant, M. ( Translated & Introduced By ). In ancient Rome, the term "triumvirate" (from the word trium viri - "three men") referred to a college of three officials meeting to perform certain tasks. After the death of Antony’s first wife Fulvia, he married Octavian’s sister Octavia. In Ancient Rome, the triumvirātus signified rule by a 3-men coalition, whether formally recognised or not.. What follows are 10 interesting facts about the Roman Triumvirate. The new triumvirate was, at best, an unstable coalition. Antony was never one to be in a forgiving mood and especially not one to overlook Cicero’s outspokenness. The news of the alliance was welcomed in Rome with horror. He viewed Antony as having become incompetent and lovesick, questioning the queen’s influence on him. Antony’s plan was to trap Octavian and his fleet at Actium on the Ambracian Gulf on the western coast of Greece. After initiating proscriptions to raise funds and purge their enemies, the Triumvirs headed east, where they defeated Brutus and Cassius at Philippi. On her appearance see G. M. A. Richter, Portraits of the Greeks (1965), 269. The Second Triumvirate lasted for only ten years. Also, another supporter of Caesar, Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, joined them and it became the reason of formation of the Second Triumvirate in October of 43 BCE. The plot to murder Julius Caesar was a well-conceived scheme. However Antony over-extended himself and was forced to retreat with considerable loss of troops.. At first, they worked together to defeat their opposition then they fought amongst themselves. by Mary Harrsch (Photographed at the Capitoline Museum) (CC BY-NC-SA). Our latest articles delivered to your inbox, once a week: Numerous educational institutions recommend us, including Oxford University and Michigan State University and University of Missouri. He was defeated twice in naval battles off Messina.  As all three had been partisans of Caesar, their main targets were opponents of the Caesarian faction. It was Decimus who had convinced the ill Caesar to appear at the Temple of Pompey where he would be assassinated. Antony remained in the east to bring Brutus and Cassius' former territories under triumvirate control. Unfortunately, while the conspiracy had been well-planned, the exit strategy was not. (2) During the civil wars of the first century B.C., an alliance formed by influential political figures and generals with a view to seizing power.The First Triumvirate (60 or 59 B.C.) This was the simple message the Roman commander... Colossal portrait of Augustus, 1st century CE. Suetonius wrote, Lepidus, the third member of the triumvirate, whom Augustus had summoned from Africa to his support, thought himself so important as the commander of twenty legions that...he violently demanded the highest place in the government. Antony met Cleopatra VII of Egypt, the former lover of Caesar; their love would lead to war. The Second Triumvirate was Ancient Rome's second three-man ruling committee and featured just as much internal squabbling as the First Triumvirate.. The First lasted from approximately 59 BC to Crassus' defeat by the Parthians in 53 BC. Jun 2, 2013 - Explore Magistra Michaud's board "Second Triumvirate", followed by 1000 people on Pinterest. Octavian's colleague in the consulate that year, his cousin (and nephew of Caesar), Quintus Pedius, died before the proscriptions got underway. The First Triumvirate (60–53 BC) was an informal alliance among three prominent politicians in the late Roman Republic: Gaius Julius Caesar, Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus and Marcus Licinius Crassus.. For ancient writers, the most shocking proscriptions were those of Caesar's legate Lucius Julius Caesar, and Lepidus' brother Lucius Aemilius Lepidus Paullus. Triumvirate means 3 men and refers to a group of three men who hold political power, regardless of whether or not the trio has been elected. Aside from the fact that Antony was not a capable naval commander, many of his officers were unhappy with Cleopatra’s appearance and input at council meetings. Web. in ancient Rome: (1) A board of three persons appointed or elected for a specific purpose, for example, the triumvirate created to administer the agrarian reforms of Tiberius Gracchus in 133 B.C. The excuse given for this was a report that Lepidus had been traitorously negotiating with Sextus Pompey. Written by Donald L. Wasson, published on 18 April 2016 under the following license: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. Marcus Tullius Cicero, the Roman statesman and poet, wrote a number of scathing essays against Antony. The triumvirate was formally recognized by the Senate in the Lex Titia in November of 43 BCE, granting the trio supreme authority for five years (until January 1, 37 BCE), and assigning them the important task of hunting down the conspirators, especially Brutus and Cassius. Caesar was instrumental in bringing about the alliance in his attempt to increase his political p Unlike the earlier First Triumvirate (between Julius Caesar, Pompey and Crassus), the Second Triumvirate was an official, legally established institution, whose overwhelming power in the Roman state was given full legal sanction and whose imperium maius outranked that of all other magistrates, including the consuls. Many of those on the enemies list chose to flee the city, abandoning all of their property. Antony's brother Lucius Antonius, who was serving as Consul, stood up for the dispossessed farmers. The Second Triumvirate had a limited amount of significance towards the fall of the Roman Republic. https://www.ancient.eu/Second_Triumvirate/. The economic problems caused by the eviction of established farmers were exacerbated by the control of Sextus Pompey over Sicily, Corsica and Sardinia.
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