In turn, none of the analysed papers, books or manufacturers' websites provided data on all the static mechanical properties analysed in this research. Entretanto, normas técnicas e estudos científicos afirmam que não se pode considerar que os dois materiais tenham o mesmo comportamento estrutural e resistência. Although the means of Figure 10 are based on few data on experimental product compressive strengths, it shows that the mean of the 10% highest values of the experimental thermoplastic products' specific compressive strength parallel to the grain exceeds almost 45% of the wood species values. Its manufacturing formulas enable it to use higher amounts of mineral filters, such as fly ash and gypsum, thus lowering production costs. Since many factors and procedures in the manufacturing process can change the density of the produced materials, it was considered that applying a simple rule-of-mixture to calculate the composites' densities would lead to unreal values. In: PROCESSING TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE FOREST AND BIOBASED PRODUCTS INDUSTRIES, 1., Kuchl, 2010. A. Static and Dynamic Compressive Properties of Mica/Polypropylene Composites. São analisadas as propriedades de madeiras de árvores coníferas e dicotiledôneas e de madeira plástica e compósitos termoplásticos comercializados e experimentais. Mechanical, Thermal Degradation, and Flammability Studies on Surface Modified Sisal Fiber Reinforced Recycled Polypropylene Composites. [ Links ], TABKHPAZ SARABI, M. et al. This research also intended to compare the materials' specific mechanical properties (mechanical property to density ratio). One study on composites made from various percentages of PP, wood fibre, microtalc and coupling agent shows compressive strengths ranging from approximately 20 MPa to 30 MPa (GARCÍA et al., 2009); another, on composites made from PP and mica, show compressive strengths ranging from approximately 25 MPa to 40 MPa (OMAR; AKIL; AHMAD, 2011). Palavras-chaves: Compósito polimérico; Resistência; Propriedade específica; Densidade; Seleção de material. Its physical characteristics like weight, density, shear strength and weathering resistance are more akin to particle board than pure wood… [ Links ], GUPTA, A. K. et al. [ Links ], OMAR, M. F.; AKIL, H. M.; AHMAD, Z. Keywords: Polymer composite; Strength; Specific property; Density; Material selection. 2014. In this sense, the specific properties values calculated in this study indicates that researches on lighter and stronger materials (polymeric matrices and fillers), i.e, presenting better strength to density ratio, are necessary. [ Links ], AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR TESTING AND MATERIALS. Fuel efficiency, maintenance costs, logistics, installation – all see significant cost reductions in tandem with a decreased part weight. Currently, plastic lumber is primarily produced based on thermoplastic matrices (NAJAFI; HAMIDINA; TAJVIDI, 2006; KLYOSOV, 2007) and is mainly used for compound benches, tables, decks, building facade coverings, pergolas and piers, and elements and structures that are commonly built from wood lumber. [ Links ], Received: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, v. 31, n. 3, p. 241-251, mar. The highest values of the modulus of elasticity among the thermoplastic products were found in PP-, HDPE- and PVC-based composites, and all are in the same region, between 5000 MPa and 9000 MPa, as the wood species' lowest values (Figure 1). At least when compared to wood, this study found contrary results, although it embraces not only wood polymer composites and natural fiber-thermoplastic composites. Wood vs. Composite vs. Polymer. [ Links ], YOO, Y.; SPENCER, M. W.; PAUL, D. R. Morphology and Mechanical Properties of Glass Fiber Reinforced Nylon 6 Nanocomposites. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, v. 100, n. 4, p. 3131-3140, 15 maio 2006. Plastic lumber and thermoplastic composites are sold as alternatives to wood products. In addition, adding a deck can increase the value of your home. 2009. The Influences of Fiber Feature and Polymer Melt Index on Mechanical Properties of Sugarcane Fiber/Polymer Composites. ... It’s completely made from plastic… [ Links ], RAJA, V. L.; KUMARAVEL, A. Same with plastics and wood. An Overview of Mechanical Properties and Durability of Glass-Fibre Reinforced Recycled Mixed Plastic Waste Composites. Wood: This type of lattice is also manufactured with a strip over strip method. Durability of Wood-Plastic Composites. [ Links ], AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR TESTING AND MATERIALS. The Structural Plastic Lumber has the same attributes as described for the molded grades with one major difference.The fiberglass reinforced plywood makes the lumber approximately 3 times stiffer … [ Links ], BENTHIEN, J. T.; THOEMEN, H. Effects of Raw Materials and Process Parameters on the Physical and Mechanical Properties of Flat Pressed WPC Panels. [ Links ], CHONG, M. H. et al. A madeira plástica e os compósitos termoplásticos são vendidos como alternativas à madeira. Nevertheless, in terms of durability and maintenance, studies have shown that plastic lumber provides a better performance than wood lumber (WINANDY; STARK; CLEMONS, 2004; GARCÍA et al., 2009; AZWA et al., 2013; NDIAYE; GUEYE; DIOP, 2013; WEI et al., 2013) and are also economically advantageous in the long term, as their maintenance can be performed less regularly and using simple products, such as soap and water. [ Links ], LEI, Y. et al. Experimental products show the highest specific strength (Figure 12). [ Links ], ASHBY, M. F. Materials Selection in Mechanical Design. September 06, 2016, Departamento de Arquitetura e Urbanismo, Departamento de Engenharia Civil | Faculdades Multivix | Rod. Most plastic materials appear smooth but artificial, differing from the earthy characteristics of bamboo. Disponível em: . 2008. [ Links ], CHAVOOSHI, A. et al. As with the tensile strength perpendicular to the grain, the thermoplastic strength values used to generate the Ashby plot (Figure 11) and bar graph (Figure 12) are practically the same as those analysed in the section about the compressive strength parallel to the grain, with few exceptions.  This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. [ Links ], YOUSSEF, A. M.; EL-GENDY, A.; KAMEL, S. Evaluation of Corn Husk Fibers Reinforced Recycled Low Density Polyethylene Composites. [ Links ], KIZILTAS, A. et al. [ Links ], HEMMATI, F.; GARMABI, H. A Study on Fire Retardancy and Durability Performance of Bagasse Fiber/Polypropylene Composite for Outdoor Applications. In fact, a pure ABS product and nylon (6 and 66)-based and PP-carbonized cow bone powder composites reached the highest thermoplastic flexural strengths. A comparison between the mechanical properties of the wood lumber species and those of the plastic lumber and wood plastic composite materials is presented in the subsections below. The most common method of production is to extrude the material into the … [ Links ], ECO-TECH PLASTICS. Figure 14 shows that the specific shear strengths of the coniferae and dicotyledon wood species are similar and that those of the commercialized thermoplastics were lower by a minimum of 60%. Specifically in 2010 and 2012, the European, North American and South American production reached 220 and 260, 900 and 1100, and 10 and 20 thousand tonnes, respectively (CARUS et al., 2014). Thus, for this type of material whose fibres are randomly oriented in many directions during the manufacturing process, the distinction between strengths parallel and perpendicular to the grain makes no sense. Figure 6 Specific tensile strength parallel to the grain for various wood species and thermoplastic productsNote: the means of the materials' specific flexural strengths were calculated using data from 7 coniferae wood species, 43 dicotyledon wood species, 127 experimental thermoplastic product compositions from 17 different papers, and 12 commercialized thermoplastic product compositions from 9 manufacturers.Â, Tensile strength perpendicular to the grain. Philadelphia, 2013. [ Links ], KLYOSOV, A. [ Links ], JOSEPH, P. V. et al. Mechanical data were collected from studies that used different standards to obtain values for the materials' density, modulus of elasticity and strength. 2006. A Review on the Degradability of Polymeric Composites Based on Natural Fibres. 2015. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, v. 40, n. 11, p. 1772-1776, nov. 2009. Unit: MPa/g/cm, Variation of the density of the wood species and thermoplastic productsÂ, Percentage of wood species and thermoplastic products that present density value in the specified intervalsÂ,, & FiberForce Technical Manual(3).pdf, If you were to take a part made from steel and compare it to the same part made from thermoplastic, the plastic part could be more than 6 times lighter. Figure 7 Ashby plot presenting the tensile strength perpendicular to the grain vs. the density for various wood species and thermoplastic productsÂ, Figure 8 Specific tensile strength perpendicular to the grain for various wood species and thermoplastic productsNota: the means of the materials' specific flexural strengths were calculated using data from 44 coniferae wood species, 130 dicotyledon wood species, 127 experimental thermoplastic product compositions from 17 different papers, and 11 commercialized thermoplastic product compositions from 9 manufacturers.Â. [ Links ], WINANDY, J. E.; STARK, N. M.; CLEMONS, C. M. Considerations in Recycling of Wood-Plastic Composites. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, v. 41, p. 1491-1497, 2010. However, based on the few data gathered on thermoplastic composite shear strengths, Figure 13 reveals that the values are in the same range as those of the wood species, between 5 MPa and 19 MPa, although a few wood species exceed this value. Construction and Building Materials, v. 55, p. 220-226, 2014. Dynamic Behavior and Flame Retardancy of HDPE/Hemp Short Fiber Composites: effect of coupling agent and fiber loading. Optimized Material Composition to Improve the Physical and Mechanical Properties of Extruded Wood-Plastic Composites (WPCs). Tensile and Flexural Behavior of Hemp Fiber Reinforced Virgin-Recycled HDPE Matrix Composites. Source: “Envirolastech’s ‘plastic lumber’ passes strength test,” Finanance & Commerce, 10/16/12 2012. In addition, the wood species from which the wood flour and wood fibre are produced may differ from reference to reference. Effects of Material Compositions on the Mechanical Properties of Wood-Plastic Composites Manufactured by Injection Molding. Polymers & Polymer Composites, v. 23, n. 6, p. 427-433, 2015. The strength-to weight ratio of Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic compared to metal or wood … [ Links ], ADHIKARY, K. B. et al. Materials Science and Engineering A, v. 528, p. 1567-1576, 2011. Effects of Wood Fiber Esterification on Properties, Weatherability and Biodurability of Wood Plastic Composites. [ Links ], LEU, S.-Y. The strength of structural timber varies depending upon the species and treatment methods used to preserve the wood. Some materials' density and mechanical strength values were collected from graphs contained within the papers analysed, as some of them did not present tables with the exact values of the properties. Can thermoplastic-based products really substitute for wood lumber in structural or semi-structural functions? Moreover, none of the thermoplastic-based products have a specific flexural modulus that is higher than that of any wood species, even comparing the highest values of the former (8359 MPa/g/cm3 and 4967 MPa/g/cm3 for experimental and commercialized products, respectively) to the lowest of the latter (12978 MPa/g/cm3 and 10648 MPa/g/cm3, for coniferae and dicotyledon species, respectively). Wood is also very susceptible to attacks from insects like termites and marine borers. Our plastic structural composite lumber was developed to conquer the harshest environments, weather conditions, and commercial applications. The highest values of flexural strength among the thermoplastic products are in the same region, between approximately 80 MPa and 120 MPa, as the highest flexural strength values of the coniferae wood species and the average values of the dicotyledon wood species (Figure 3). [ Links ], BOWYER, J. et al. Os altos valores de resistência à compressão e de resistência específica à tração e à compressão perpendicular às fibras exibidos pelos compósitos experimentais comparados à madeira revelam seu potencial para uso em elementos comprimidos e sob compressão ou tração perpendicular às fibras. The lattice is advertised as ½” thickness. Similar to the flexural modulus, the thermoplastic products that exhibited values of flexural strength comparable to those of wood have a much higher density. Polymer Degradation and Stability, v. 98, p. 1348-1361, 2013. (2012), used wood flour from many wood species belonging to the same genus to produce the WPCs. Construction and Building Materials, v. 76, p. 273-278, 2015. Procedia Materials Science, v. 6, p. 1696-1702, 2014. Composites Part B: Engineering, v. 39, n. 5, p. 807-815, jul. Moreover, there are many compositions of thermoplastic-based products and plenty of wood species. On the other hand, experimental plastic-based products have significantly higher compressive strengths parallel to the grain, reaching almost 200 Mpa. Actually, the finds of this study are in agreement to English and Falk (1996), which showed that polyolefins and wood plastic composites have higher density and lower flexural strength and modulus of elasticity (stiffness) than Southern pine and Douglas fir; and also in agreement to Benthien and Thoemen (2012), which related that wood-plastic composites panels have higher specific weight than wood-based … Z. et al. Due to its superior durability and maintainability, plastic lumber could be an alternative to wood lumber under such mechanical situations; the extremely high values of compressive strength shown for the studied experimental thermoplastic composites, compared to wood, reveals their great potential use in compressed elements; regarding the thermoplastic-based products' specific flexural modulus, even considering their best ratios compared to the worst ratios of the wood species, the former still show lower property values, which can be translated to a high deformation in comparison to wood. Data were collected from the literature on 57 coniferae and 183 dicotyledon wood species, also known as softwoods and hardwoods, respectively, from the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. Materials & Design, v. 69, p. 114-123, mar. If analysing only the commercialized thermoplastic products, the highest flexural strength is close to 40 MPa. This aspect can be seen in Figure 4. [ Links ], KUO, P.-Y. When papers did not clearly presented the composites' density values, they were unappreciated in this study, even though the percentage and density of each material in the composites' formulation were described. It also includes composites that mix such plastics with fillers such as wood flour, wood fibre, bark fibre, rice hulls, hemp fibre, flax fibre, sugarcane bagasse fibre, calcium carbonate, carbonized and uncarbonized cow bone powder, silica fume, kaolin, talc, and glass fibres and with additives such as coupling agents and lubricants. Fillers can decrease density, strength … Molded Plastic : Wood. [ Links ], HONG, H. et al. In this respect, it should be noted that if the papers Carroll et al. [ Links ], AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR TESTING AND MATERIALS. Density is the single most important indicator of strength in wood: a wood that is heavier (i.e., more wood … Consumers often expect green products to cost more than traditional products, and they think that small companies cannot be competitive with the bigger players. Plastic-based products also absorb less water (STARK, 2005; CHEVALI; DEAN; JANOWSKI, 2010; NAJAFI; KORDKHEILI, 2011; BENTHIEN; THOEMEN, 2012; LEU et al., 2012; AZWA et al., 2013; CHAVOOSHI et al., 2014; YOUSSEF; EL-GENDY; KAMEL, 2015), which contributes to a longer useful life, as effects such as swelling (KLYOSOV, 2007), component buckling (KLYOSOV, 2007), decrease in mechanical strength (STARK, 2006; STRÖMBERG; KARLSSON, 2009; MORRELL et al., 2010; NAJAFI; KORDKHEILI, 2011) and biological degradation (STRÖMBERG; KARLSSON, 2009; HEMMATI; GARMABI, 2012; NAUMANN; STEPHAN; NOLL, 2012; AZWA et al., 2013) are minimized. In fact, just the opposite happens; the proprietary formula used in the plastic makes the plastic stronger in colder temperatures. Technical standards used in mechanical tests on the analysed materials. Journal of Composite Materials, v. 43, n. 8, p. 877-883, 1 abr. [ Links ], ASUKE, F. et al. [ Links ], KOZŁOWSKI, R.; WŁADYKA-PRZYBYLAK, M. Review: flammability and fire resistance of composites reinforced by natural fibers. But the founder, Paul Schmitt, of the Rochester, Minn.-based company, Envirolastech Inc., says the plastic not only outperforms wood in strength, but also does not rot or split, problems that sometimes occur with traditional wood … Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, v. 38, n. 7, p. 1664-1674, jul. Different data have also been collected from different books for some wood species. Natural Fiber Blend-Nylon 6 Composites. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, v. 100, n. 5, p. 3641-3645, 5 jun. [ Links ], KIM, S.-J. PP-carbonized cow bone powder and PP-uncarbonized cow bone powder exhibited the highest specific strength, followed by nylon composites. Journal of Thermoplastic Composite Materials, v. 26, n. 8, p. 1041-1056, 2012. Moreover, although the use of coupling agents in the composites' formulation generally enhance their mechanical properties compared to composites made without them (STARK; ROWLANDS, 2003; KARMARKAR et al., 2007; LEI et al., 2007; ADHIKARY; PANG; STAIGER, 2008, 2010; KIM et al., 2008; GWON et al., 2010; GUPTA et al., 2012; WANG et al., 2014; HONG et al., 2014; IGARZA et al., 2014; REN et al., 2015; IZZATI ZULKIFLI et al., 2015), the better interaction and adhesion between the polymeric matrix and the fillers provided by compatibilizers were not sufficient to produce composites with specific flexural properties and tensile strength parallel to grain even close to wood. In both the plastic … [ Links ], NOURBAKHSH, A.; ASHORI, A. Significant Improvement in Performance of Recycled Polyethylene/Wood Flour Composites by Synergistic Compatibilization at Multi-Scale Interfaces. But a judge for the 2012 Minnesota Cup — an entrepreneurial competition focusing on new, innovative businesses — says those two expectations are not true with Envirolastech. [ Links ], STARK, N. M. Effect of Weathering Variables on the Lightness of High-Density Polyethylene Woodflour Composites. ADHIKARY, K. B.; PANG, S.; STAIGER, M. P. Dimensional Stability and Mechanical Behaviour of Wood-Plastic Composites Based on Recycled and Virgin High-Density Polyethylene (HDPE). 2014. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, v. 38, n. 2, p. 227-233, 2007.

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